As I settled into my chair, anticipation filled the room. The opportunity to interview Donald Arthur Norman, the esteemed author of “The Design of Everyday Things,” was an honor that left me both humbled and excited. Norman’s contributions to the fields of design and cognitive science had resonated with countless individuals, shaping the way we interact with technology, products, and environments on a daily basis.
The Design of Everyday Things” had become a staple for professionals and enthusiasts alike. Its insightful exploration of the factors that contribute to successful and intuitive design had paved the way for improved user experiences and enhanced product functionality. Norman’s ability to blend theoretical concepts with practical applications had earned him a reputation as a leading authority in the field, making this conversation all the more significant.
As the interview room buzzed with anticipation, I couldn’t help but reflect on the impact that Norman’s work had on my own understanding of design. Through his writings, he had taught me to question the usability of everyday objects, to consider the cognitive processes involved in interaction, and to advocate for designs that empower and enhance the lives of users. Now, sitting face-to-face with the man behind these transformative ideas, I felt a mix of excitement, curiosity, and gratitude.
With my questions prepared and my mind spinning with possibilities, I welcomed the opportunity to engage in a dialogue that would go beyond the pages of his book. This interview held the promise of uncovering personal anecdotes, deep-rooted motivations, and the evolutionary journey that led Norman to become the renowned figure he is today.
Who is Donald Arthur Norman?
Donald Arthur Norman, a distinguished figure in the fields of design, cognitive science, and usability engineering, is renowned for his significant contributions to the understanding and improvement of everyday objects and user experiences. With a diverse background that includes degrees in electrical engineering and psychology, Norman’s expertise encompasses a wide range of disciplines, allowing him to approach design challenges from a multidimensional perspective.
Throughout his illustrious career, Donald Norman has held esteemed positions at prestigious institutions such as Harvard University, the University of California, San Diego, and Northwestern University. As a professor, researcher, and consultant, he has made invaluable contributions to various areas, including human-computer interaction, cognitive psychology, and industrial design.
Although Norman has authored numerous influential books and papers, it is his seminal work, “The Design of Everyday Things,” that has had a profound impact on the design community and beyond. Originally published in 1988 under the title “The Psychology of Everyday Things,” the book underwent a revision in 2013 to reflect its enduring relevance. In this groundbreaking publication, Norman explores the fundamental principles governing the usability and effectiveness of everyday products, emphasizing the significance of user-centered design.
Norman’s insights challenge conventional assumptions about design, urging designers, engineers, and innovators to prioritize the needs and behaviors of users. He emphasizes the concepts of affordance and feedback, which highlight the importance of clear and intuitive interfaces that allow users to easily understand and interact with products. Furthermore, Norman introduces the concept of “human error” as a design problem rather than solely blaming users, advocating for the creation of error-tolerant systems that accommodate users’ natural tendencies and limitations.
Beyond his written works, Donald Norman has played an instrumental role in shaping organizations and initiatives focused on design and usability. He co-founded the Nielsen Norman Group, a leading consulting firm dedicated to improving the user experience, and served as an advocate for human-centered design in industries ranging from technology and healthcare to transportation and architecture.
Here you can get more information about him by clicking Donald Arthur Norman’s Britannica.
20 Thought-Provoking Questions with Donald Arthur Norman
1.Can you share ten The Design of Everyday Things quotes to our readers?
● Design is really an act of communication, which means having a deep understanding of the person with whom the designer is communicating.
● Good design is actually a lot harder to notice than poor design, in part because good designs fit our needs so well that the design is invisible.
● Rule of thumb: if you think something is clever and sophisticated beware-it is probably self-indulgence.
● A brilliant solution to the wrong problem can be worse than no solution at all: solve the correct problem.
● Cognition attempts to make sense of the world: emotion assigns value.
● The problem with the designs of most engineers is that they are too logical. We have to accept human behavior the way it is, not the way we would wish it to be.
● Two of the most important characteristics of good design are discoverability and understanding.
● It is easy to design devices that work well when everything goes as planned. The hard and necessary part of design is to make things work well even when things do not go as planned.
● Norman’s Law: The day the product team is announced, it is behind schedule and over its budget.
● One way of overcoming the fear of the new is to make it look like the old.
2. What inspired you to write “The Design of Everyday Things”?
The inspiration behind writing The Design of Everyday Things stemmed from my deep fascination with the world of design and its impact on our daily lives. Throughout my career as a cognitive scientist and designer, I became increasingly aware of the significant role that design plays in shaping our experiences and interactions with the objects and systems around us.
I realized that many everyday objects and technologies often fail to meet the needs and expectations of users due to poor design choices. This realization motivated me to delve deeper into understanding the principles of good design and how they can be applied to create more intuitive and user-friendly products.
I sought to bridge the gap between designers and users by demystifying the design process and highlighting the importance of human-centered design. I wanted to empower both designers and consumers to recognize the impact of well-designed objects and systems on their overall satisfaction and usability.
By writing The Design of Everyday Things, my intention was to provide a comprehensive guide for designers, engineers, and anyone interested in understanding the fundamental principles of good design. I aimed to shed light on the psychological aspects of human interaction with technology and to offer practical insights and guidelines for creating products that are intuitive, functional, and enjoyable to use.
3. Can you explain the concept of “affordances” and why it is crucial in design?
The concept of affordances, which I introduced in my book “The Design of Everyday Things,” refers to the perceived or potential actions that an object or environment offers to a user. It is about the relationship between an object and the person interacting with it, focusing on what can be done and how it can be done.
Affordances play a crucial role in design because they provide users with cues about how to interact with an object or system. When designing, it is essential to consider the affordances of an object or interface to ensure it communicates its functionality clearly and intuitively.
For example, a door handle affords grasping and pulling, inviting users to open it. In this case, the shape, texture, and placement of the handle communicate its affordance. Good design ensures that these cues are easily perceived, preventing confusion or frustration for users.
Designers must anticipate the desired actions and behaviors of users and create affordances that align with those expectations. By doing so, designers empower users to understand and engage with products or environments more effectively.
However, it is important to note that affordances can also lead to false assumptions or misinterpretations. This is known as a false affordance, where an object’s design suggests a particular action, but the expected outcome does not occur. Designers should aim to minimize false affordances and ensure that the cues provided align with the intended user experience.
4. In the book, you discuss the importance of understanding human psychology in design. Could you elaborate on that?
In “The Design of Everyday Things,” I emphasize the significance of understanding human psychology in design. It is crucial because good design involves creating products and systems that align with how people think, perceive, and interact with the world around them.
One aspect of human psychology that is particularly relevant to design is cognitive processing. Humans have limited attention and cognitive resources, so it is essential to design interfaces and interactions that are intuitive and require minimal mental effort. By understanding how people process information, make decisions, and form mental models, designers can create experiences that are more efficient and user-friendly.
Another important psychological factor is human perception. Our senses play a significant role in our understanding of the world and how we interact with it. Designers should consider human perceptual capabilities when designing visual elements, such as color, contrast, and typography, to ensure information is presented clearly and legibly.
Additionally, the concept of human memory is critical in design. Understanding how humans encode, store, and retrieve information helps designers create interfaces that facilitate information retention and recall. This can involve employing visual cues, clear navigation, and consistent patterns to aid users in remembering and locating information within a product or system.
5. How has the field of design evolved since the publication of your book in 1988?
One major shift is the increased recognition and emphasis on user-centered design. Designers now place a greater focus on understanding the needs, behaviors, and preferences of users. User research methods, such as interviews, observations, and usability testing, have become integral parts of the design process. This shift has resulted in more intuitive, human-centric designs that prioritize user satisfaction and usability.
Another notable development is the rise of digital technology and its impact on design. The advent of personal computers, smartphones, and other digital devices has opened up new possibilities for interaction and experience design. Designers now face the challenge of creating seamless and engaging digital experiences that integrate smoothly into people’s lives.
Furthermore, the concept of design thinking has gained prominence. Design thinking emphasizes a problem-solving approach that combines empathy, creativity, and a focus on practical solutions. It encourages interdisciplinary collaboration and iterative processes, allowing designers to tackle complex problems effectively and develop innovative solutions.
Sustainability and ethical considerations have also become increasingly important in design. Designers are now more conscious of the environmental impact of their creations, striving to reduce waste, use sustainable materials, and create products with a longer lifespan. Additionally, ethical concerns related to privacy, inclusivity, and social responsibility have prompted designers to consider the broader implications of their work.
6. What impact do you hope your book has had on designers and everyday users?
I hope that my book has had a profound impact on designers by encouraging them to prioritize usability, functionality, and user-centered design principles. It was my intention to provide a framework for understanding how design choices can either enhance or hinder the user experience. By highlighting common design flaws and offering practical solutions, I aimed to inspire designers to create products that are intuitive, efficient, and delightful to use.
Furthermore, I aspire for “The Design of Everyday Things” to empower everyday users by making them more aware of design principles and their role in influencing product usability. Through this book, I wanted to give voice to the frustration users often feel when faced with poorly designed products. By helping readers understand the underlying principles of good design, I hoped to instill confidence in their ability to recognize and advocate for better design in their own lives.
Over the years, I have received feedback from both designers and users who have expressed how “The Design of Everyday Things” has transformed their approach to design or improved their interactions with everyday objects. Many have shared stories of overcoming frustrations and gaining a deeper appreciation for well-designed products.
Ultimately, I believe that the impact of “The Design of Everyday Things” lies in fostering a mindset shift, prompting designers to prioritize user needs and empowering users to expect and demand better design. By promoting user-centered design principles, I hope to have contributed to a world where everyday products are not only functional but also intuitive, enjoyable, and accessible to all.
7. Can you provide examples of well-designed products that embody the principles outlined in your book?
Apple iPhone: The iPhone exemplifies good design by incorporating simplicity and intuitiveness. Its minimalist interface, clear icons, and consistent navigation make it easy for users to understand and interact with the device.
Nest Learning Thermostat: The Nest thermostat features an elegant and user-friendly design. It uses a combination of intuitive controls, adaptive learning capabilities, and a sleek interface to create a seamless experience for homeowners seeking energy efficiency and comfort control.
Dyson Airblade Hand Dryer: This hand dryer demonstrates excellent design by considering the user’s needs and preferences. It offers fast and efficient drying while minimizing mess and noise, with an ergonomic shape that makes it comfortable to use.
Tesla Model S: The Model S showcases exceptional design in the realm of electric vehicles. With its sleek appearance, user-friendly touchscreen interface, and seamless integration of advanced features, it provides a driving experience that is both intuitive and enjoyable.
Philips Sonicare Electric Toothbrush: This toothbrush stands out for its user-centered design. It incorporates features such as timer functions, pressure sensors, and interchangeable brush heads to enhance oral hygiene routines.
8. Have there been any notable changes or updates to your ideas or theories since the original publication?
One significant development is the growing recognition of the importance of human-centered design. In recent years, there has been a shift towards placing the needs and abilities of users at the forefront of design processes. This approach emphasizes empathy, usability testing, and iterative design to create products and systems that align with the users’ mental models and expectations.
Additionally, advancements in technology have opened up new possibilities and challenges for design. The rise of digital interfaces, smart devices, and artificial intelligence has presented novel opportunities to enhance user experiences but also introduced new complexities. As a result, I have expanded my thoughts on how design principles can be applied to these emerging technologies and their impact on daily life.
Furthermore, my understanding of cognitive psychology and its implications for design has deepened over time. In subsequent works and discussions, I have explored concepts such as affordances, feedback loops, and the role of emotions in design. These insights have further enriched my perspective on the relationship between humans and the products and environments they interact with.
9. How can individuals apply the principles from your book to their own lives and interactions with everyday objects?
Observe and question: Begin by observing the objects and systems you interact with on a daily basis. Question how they are designed, what problems they solve, and whether they truly meet your needs. This mindset of curiosity and critical thinking is crucial for identifying areas where design can be improved.
Understand affordances: Pay attention to the affordances of objects, which are the perceived possibilities for action they offer. Recognize how objects communicate their functionality through their physical properties. By understanding these cues, you can quickly and intuitively recognize how to interact with an object or system.
Consider mappings and feedback: Evaluate the mapping between controls and their effects. A well-designed object should have a clear and intuitive relationship between its controls and the actions they produce. Additionally, seek feedback that informs you about the results of your actions. Whether it’s a visual indicator or a tactile response, effective feedback enhances usability and user satisfaction.
Foster error prevention and recovery: Aim for designs that prevent errors or make them easily reversible. Anticipate potential user errors and incorporate fail-safe mechanisms to minimize the consequences. When mistakes do occur, ensure clear paths for users to recover without undue frustration or confusion.
10. Are there any specific industries or areas where you believe the principles of good design are particularly lacking?
Healthcare: The healthcare industry often struggles with complex systems and interfaces, making it difficult for both healthcare professionals and patients to navigate. From electronic health records (EHR) systems to medical devices, there is a need for improved user-centered design to enhance usability, reduce errors, and improve overall patient care.
Transportation: Whether it’s public transportation systems, automotive interfaces, or even navigation apps, the transportation industry often falls short in terms of design. Inconsistent signage, confusing interfaces, and lack of intuitive controls can make using transportation systems unnecessarily frustrating and can even compromise safety.
Education technology: With the increasing integration of technology in educational settings, the design of educational software, learning management systems, and digital tools has become crucial. However, many educational platforms suffer from poor usability, lack of personalization, and inadequate feedback mechanisms, hindering effective teaching and learning experiences.
11. What role does technology play in shaping the design of everyday things, and how has this evolved over time?
Technology plays a significant role in shaping the design of everyday things, and its impact has evolved over time. Initially, technology primarily influenced the functionality and performance of products. However, as technology progressed, it began to have a more profound impact on the user experience and the design process itself.
In the early days, technology was often complex and required specialized knowledge to operate. This resulted in designs that were geared towards expert users rather than the general public. However, advancements in technology, particularly in the realm of user interfaces, have allowed for more intuitive and user-friendly designs.
One notable evolution is the shift towards human-centered design. With the advent of user interface design and interaction design disciplines, technology became more focused on meeting users’ needs and preferences. Designers started considering factors such as usability, simplicity, and aesthetics to create products that are not only functional but also enjoyable to use.
Moreover, technology has enabled the creation of new types of everyday things, such as smartphones, smart home devices, and wearable technology. These innovations bring about unique design challenges, including miniaturization, interface design for small screens, and seamless integration into users’ lives.
In recent years, technology has also facilitated the rise of user feedback and iterative design processes. Through digital platforms and social media, users can provide direct input and influence product design. This shift has encouraged designers to be more responsive and adaptive, incorporating user feedback into subsequent iterations and updates.
12. How do you balance aesthetics and functionality in design? Are they mutually exclusive?
Balancing aesthetics and functionality in design is a crucial aspect of creating successful and meaningful products. While some may perceive aesthetics and functionality as mutually exclusive, I firmly believe that they can and should coexist harmoniously.
Aesthetics refers to the visual appeal, emotional response, and overall sensory experience evoked by a design. Functionality, on the other hand, focuses on how well a design meets its intended purpose and facilitates seamless and efficient user interactions.
In my view, aesthetics and functionality are interdependent and should be considered together throughout the design process. Good design should not only look visually pleasing but also perform effectively and meet users’ needs.
When aesthetics and functionality are in balance, they can reinforce one another. An aesthetically pleasing design can enhance usability by creating an emotional connection with users, making them more inclined to engage with the product. Likewise, a functional design that effectively solves problems and meets user requirements contributes to a positive user experience, which in turn enhances its aesthetic appeal.
Designers must consider both aspects from the outset, ensuring that aesthetics do not compromise functionality and vice versa. It is essential to strike a balance where the visual elements augment and support the usability and functionality of the design.
13. Have you encountered any surprising or unexpected responses or feedback since the release of your book?
One surprising response has been the resonance of the book’s principles across disciplines beyond traditional product design. Professionals in fields such as architecture, software development, healthcare, and education have found value in applying the principles outlined in the book to their own domains. This wider reach of the book’s concepts emphasized the universal nature of good design and its relevance in diverse industries.
Additionally, I received feedback from readers who shared personal stories about how the book had profoundly impacted their lives. Some expressed how it opened their eyes to the importance of user-centered design, leading them to pursue careers in design or advocate for better-designed products and systems. Others mentioned how it helped them reevaluate their own interactions with everyday objects and empowered them to seek out more intuitive and functional designs.
Another unexpected outcome was witnessing the book’s influence on the design community and subsequent changes in design practices. “The Design of Everyday Things” contributed to a shift in design thinking, promoting the idea that users should be at the center of the design process. Many designers and companies adopted the principles laid out in the book, resulting in more human-centered design approaches and improved user experiences.
14. What advice would you give to aspiring designers who want to create user-friendly and intuitive products?
Understand your users: Empathy is at the heart of good design. Take the time to deeply understand the needs, goals, and preferences of your target users. Conduct user research, engage in user testing, and seek feedback throughout the design process. By understanding your users’ mental models and behaviors, you can create designs that align with their expectations and facilitate intuitive interactions.
Emphasize simplicity and clarity: Strive for simplicity in your designs. Eliminate unnecessary complexity and streamline interactions to make them as straightforward as possible. Clearly communicate functionality through intuitive visual cues, labels, and instructions. Avoid overwhelming users with too many options or information.
Prioritize usability: Put usability at the forefront of your design process. Design with a focus on making tasks easier, more efficient, and error-resistant. Continuously iterate and refine your designs based on user feedback. Usability testing should be an integral part of your design workflow to identify pain points and areas for improvement.
Incorporate user feedback: User feedback is invaluable. Actively seek input from users throughout the design process to ensure that your designs meet their needs and expectations. Listen attentively to their suggestions, concerns, and frustrations. Use this feedback to inform design decisions and make necessary adjustments.
15. How can consumers or users advocate for better design in the products they use?
Provide feedback: Actively share your experiences and provide feedback to the companies and designers behind the products you use. Whether through customer support channels, online reviews, or social media platforms, your feedback can help highlight areas that need improvement and encourage designers to prioritize user needs.
Participate in usability testing: If given the opportunity, participate in usability testing sessions for new or existing products. This allows you to provide direct input on the design, identify usability issues, and offer suggestions for improvement. Your insights can shape the development process and lead to more user-friendly designs.
Engage with user communities: Join online forums, discussion groups, or user communities related to specific products or industries. Engaging in these platforms allows you to connect with other users who share similar concerns or ideas for design enhancements. Collaborating with like-minded individuals amplifies your collective voice and increases the chances of being heard by product manufacturers.
Support companies with good design practices: Seek out and support companies that prioritize user-centered design principles. By purchasing products from companies known for their commitment to usability and user experience, you send a message to the market that good design matters. This can incentivize other companies to adopt similar practices.
16. Do you believe there are cultural or regional variations in how people perceive and interact with designed objects?
Yes, I believe that there are cultural or regional variations in how people perceive and interact with designed objects. Culture plays a significant role in shaping individuals’ values, beliefs, behaviors, and experiences, including their interactions with products and objects.
Cultural factors such as language, social norms, aesthetics, and historical context influence people’s expectations and preferences regarding design. These factors can impact various aspects of design, including usability, aesthetics, symbolism, and functionality.
For example, different cultures may have varying preferences for color schemes, visual styles, and decorative elements. What is considered visually appealing or appropriate in one culture may be perceived differently in another. Similarly, the meaning and symbolism attached to certain objects or colors can vary across cultures, which can impact the design choices and user interpretations.
17. How do you see the future of design and its impact on society?
I envision a future where design will continue to play a crucial role in shaping our society. Design has always been a powerful force in driving innovation, solving complex problems, and enhancing the human experience. Looking ahead, I see several key trends and areas where design will have a significant impact:
Human-Centered Design: The focus on human-centered design will continue to grow. As technology advances and becomes more integrated into our lives, designers must prioritize the needs and well-being of the end-users. This approach ensures that products and services are intuitive, accessible, and address real-world challenges.
Sustainable Design: Designers will increasingly embrace sustainability as a core principle. With growing environmental concerns, there is a pressing need to create products and systems that minimize waste, reduce energy consumption, and promote ecological balance. Sustainable design will involve incorporating circular economy principles, using eco-friendly materials, and designing for long-term durability and repairability.
18. Are there any new projects or research areas that you are currently focusing on?
Emotional Design: I am exploring the intersection of emotions and design, delving into how the emotional aspects of products and experiences influence user perceptions, behaviors, and satisfaction. This research allows me to uncover ways to create more emotionally engaging designs that resonate with users on a deeper level.
Design for Aging: With an aging population worldwide, I am committed to studying and advocating for design solutions that enhance the quality of life for older individuals. This involves researching age-friendly design principles, designing innovative products that support independent living and well-being, and addressing the unique challenges and needs of the elderly population.
Design Ethics: Addressing the ethical implications of design has become increasingly important in today’s technology-driven world. I am actively involved in research and discussions surrounding the ethical considerations associated with emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, automation, and data privacy. The aim is to develop guidelines and frameworks that help designers navigate these complex ethical dimensions.
19. Looking back, is there anything you would change or revise in your book if given the opportunity?
Expanded coverage on digital and interactive design: The original edition of the book was primarily focused on physical objects. In today’s digital age, it would be beneficial to expand the discussion to include interactive and digital design principles. This would address how users interact with software, websites, mobile applications, and other technological interfaces.
Case studies and contemporary examples: Including more recent case studies and real-world examples would help illustrate the concepts in a modern context. By examining the successes and failures of current designs, readers would gain valuable insights into the practical application of design principles.
Inclusion of cultural perspectives: Recognizing the importance of cultural influences on design perception and interaction, I would strive to provide more diverse cultural examples throughout the book. This would help readers understand the nuances of design across different regions and enhance their ability to create inclusive designs.
Integration of new research findings: Keeping up with the latest research findings and incorporating them into the book would allow readers to benefit from the most recent insights into cognitive psychology, usability, and human-computer interaction. This would ensure that the book remains relevant and aligned with the evolving understanding of human behavior and design principles.
20. Can you recommend any other books or resources that complement or expand upon the ideas discussed in “The Design of Everyday Things”?
Crossing The Chasm” by Geoffrey Moore: it explores the challenges faced by technology companies as they strive to transition from early adopters to mainstream markets.
Irresistible” by Adam Alter: it delves into the pervasive influence of technology on our lives and the psychology behind our addiction to digital devices and online platforms.
Hacking Growth” by Sean Ellis: it is a groundbreaking book that uncovers the strategies and tactics employed by some of the world’s most successful companies to achieve rapid growth.