Responsive Menu
Add more content here...

Exploring Raymond Chandler’s Literary Legacy: An Interview behind “The Long Goodbye”

the long goodbye-logo

Welcome, dear readers, to a captivating journey into the enigmatic mind of one of the most influential figures in crime fiction—Raymond Chandler. As we delve into the world he created, filled with dark alleys, femme fatales, and gritty detectives, we find ourselves unraveling the secrets behind his timeless works.

Raymond Chandler, born in 1888, was an American novelist and screenwriter who transformed the detective genre with his iconic character, Philip Marlowe. Through his hard-boiled writing style and intricate plots, Chandler breathed life into the streets of Los Angeles, exposing its underbelly and revealing the complexities of human nature.

In this exclusive interview, we have the rare opportunity to sit down with the man himself—to peek behind the curtain and gain a deeper understanding of his creative process, inspirations, and the impact his work has had on the literary world.

Chandler’s characters are known for their quick wit, sharp tongues, and moral complexity. The lines between good and evil blur, leaving readers captivated by the shades of gray that define each of his stories. From “The Big Sleep” to “Farewell, My Lovely,” Chandler’s words transported us to a shadowy realm where danger lurks at every corner.

As we embark on this journey through the pages of time, let us open the door to Raymond Chandler’s mysterious world and attempt to decipher the brilliance that lies within his works. Join us as we bring forth the essence of his storytelling prowess, exploring the depths of his imagination and unearthing the truth behind his legendary status.

So, fasten your seatbelts and prepare for a thrilling conversation as we unlock the enigma of Raymond Chandler—author, creator, and master of noir.

Who is Raymond Chandler?

Raymond Chandler, born on July 23, 1888, was an American novelist and screenwriter who left an indelible mark on the world of crime fiction. Renowned for his hard-boiled detective stories set in Los Angeles during the gritty era of the 1930s and 1940s, Chandler’s work revolutionized the genre. His complex characters, atmospheric settings, and vivid descriptions established a new standard for realism and literary quality in detective fiction.

In 1939, Chandler created his iconic private detective character, Philip Marlowe, who became synonymous with the hard-boiled archetype. Marlowe, a cynical yet principled loner, navigated through a corrupt and morally ambiguous world while adhering to his own code of honor. Chandler’s portrayal of Marlowe resonated with readers, and the character quickly became a cultural icon.

Chandler’s novels, including “The Big Sleep,” “Farewell, My Lovely,” and “The Long Goodbye,” showcased his keen observations of human behavior, masterful plotting, and a sharp wit infused with dark humor. His writing style exhibited a meticulous attention to detail, portraying the seedy underbelly of Los Angeles with stark realism. The city itself became a character in Chandler’s works, reflecting the social and political climate of the time.

Beyond his impact on literature, Chandler also made significant contributions to Hollywood as a screenwriter. He adapted several of his own novels for film, including “Double Indemnity” and “The Blue Dahlia.” His screenwriting talents further showcased his ability to craft gripping narratives and capture the essence of noir storytelling.

Raymond Chandler’s legacy endures to this day, inspiring countless authors and filmmakers in the crime fiction genre. His unique blend of gritty realism, compelling characters, and evocative settings continues to captivate readers, cementing his status as one of the most influential writers of the 20th century.

Here you can get more information about him by clicking Raymond Chandler’s Britannica.

20 Thought-Provoking Questions With Raymond Chandler

1.Can you provide ten The Long Goodbye quotes to our readers?

1.To say goodbye is to die a little.

2. There is no trap so deadly as the trap you set for yourself.

3. I was as hollow and empty as the spaces between stars.

4. The girl gave him a look which ought to have stuck at least four inches out of his back.

5. You talk too damn much and too damn much of it is about you.

6. The tragedy of life, Howard, is not that the beautiful die young, but that they grow old and mean. It will not happen to me.

7. There was a sad fellow over on a bar stool talking to the bartender, who was polishing a glass and listening with that plastic smile people wear when they are trying not to scream.

8. I’m killing time and it’s dying hard.

9. One would think a writer would be happy here — if a writer is ever happy anywhere.

10. A dead man is the best fall guy in the world. He never talks back.

2. Can you give us a brief overview of the main storyline and themes in the novel?

“The Long Goodbye” follows the adventures of my iconic private detective character, Philip Marlowe. The story begins when Marlowe’s friend Terry Lennox is accused of murder, leading to an intense investigation that takes him into the dark underbelly of Los Angeles.

The novel explores themes such as loyalty, betrayal, corruption, and the blurred lines between good and evil. As Marlowe delves deeper into the case, he uncovers a complex web of deceit, involving shady characters from the rich and powerful to the criminal underworld. The narrative is filled with twists and turns, keeping the reader engaged in the intricate plot.

One of the primary themes in “The Long Goodbye” is the disillusionment and moral decay prevalent in post-World War II America. Through Marlowe’s perspective, the novel critiques the corrupting influence of money, power, and social status, emphasizing the loss of traditional values and a sense of honor.

Another significant theme is the exploration of personal identity and self-worth. Marlowe, a hard-boiled detective with a strong sense of integrity, struggles to navigate a world where morality seems relative. He encounters characters grappling with their own identities, haunted by their pasts, and wrestling with the consequences of their actions.

3. The protagonist, Philip Marlowe, is a complex character. How did you develop his personality and motivations?

Firstly, Marlowe’s personality was shaped by my desire to present a character who embodies the archetype of the hard-boiled detective. He needed to be tough, determined, and cynical in order to navigate the corrupt and gritty world he inhabits. Through his interactions with various characters and his internal monologues, I fleshed out his unique voice, injecting him with dry wit and a sharp tongue that reflected his environment.

To make Marlowe more complex, I endowed him with a sense of morality and a strong code of ethics. Despite his rugged exterior, he possesses a genuine concern for justice and is willing to go to great lengths to help those in need. This moral compass often puts him at odds with the corrupt individuals surrounding him, leading to inner conflicts and difficult choices.

Furthermore, Marlowe’s motivations were influenced by my observation of human nature and the complexities of the human psyche. While he is motivated by financial gain to some extent, he also possesses a deep curiosity and an insatiable desire to uncover the truth. His pursuit of justice and solving mysteries stems from a fascination with unraveling the intricate webs of deceit that plague society, rather than solely seeking personal gain.

Additionally, Marlowe’s motivations were shaped by the social and historical context of the time in which he lives. The 1930s and 1940s were marked by economic depression and social unrest, which influenced his attitude toward the world. The challenges and hardships faced by many during this period served as a backdrop against which Marlowe’s character developed, infusing him with a sense of resilience and determination.

4. “The Long Goodbye” is often considered one of your finest works. What elements do you think contribute to its enduring popularity?

First and foremost, I believe that the character of Philip Marlowe resonates with readers. Marlowe is a complex and morally upright detective who embodies the hard-boiled detective archetype. His cynical worldview, unwavering integrity, and sharp wit make him a compelling and relatable protagonist.

Another aspect that contributes to the book’s popularity is the intricate and tightly woven plot. “The Long Goodbye” presents a multi-layered mystery that keeps readers engaged and guessing until the very end. The story involves themes of betrayal, loyalty, corruption, and personal redemption, all of which add depth and resonance to the narrative.

Furthermore, the atmospheric setting plays a crucial role in capturing readers’ imagination. The gritty underbelly of Los Angeles in the 1940s serves as a backdrop for the story, creating a vivid and evocative atmosphere. This portrayal of a corrupt and decaying city adds a sense of realism and provides social commentary on the era.

Additionally, my distinctive writing style contributes to the enduring popularity of “The Long Goodbye.” Through my use of vivid descriptions, sharp dialogue, and terse prose, I aimed to create a unique and immersive reading experience. This style not only enhances the noir atmosphere but also showcases the depth of the characters and their interactions.

5. How did you approach the setting of Los Angeles in the book? What role does the city play in the story?

In “The Long Goodbye,” my approach to portraying the setting of Los Angeles was integral to shaping the overall atmosphere and narrative of the story. I aimed to capture the essence of the city and its unique characteristics, which played a significant role in driving the plot and defining the characters.

Los Angeles, often referred to as “a bright and guilty place,” served as a backdrop that reflected the complexity and corruption deeply rooted within the story. Through vivid descriptions and immersive detail, I sought to convey the contrasting elements of the city: the glamorous allure of Hollywood, the dark underbelly of crime, and the sprawling urban landscapes.

The setting of Los Angeles not only set the stage for the events but also acted as a character in itself. The city’s sprawling nature allowed for a diverse range of locations, from luxurious mansions to seedy bars, adding depth and variety to the story. Furthermore, the contrasting environments of opulence and decay mirrored the contrasting lifestyles and motives of the characters.

Los Angeles, with its aura of artificiality and hidden truths behind closed doors, provided a stark contrast to the moral code that my protagonist, Philip Marlowe, adhered to. It reflected the challenges he faced as he navigated through a maze of deception, greed, and compromised loyalties. The city’s influence on Marlowe’s character development was profound. It shaped his perspective, testing his resilience and forcing him to confront the dark undercurrents lurking beneath the surface.

the long goodbye-book

6. The novel explores themes of loyalty and betrayal. Can you discuss how these themes are woven into the narrative?

In The Long Goodbye, the themes of loyalty and betrayal are central to the story’s progression. The protagonist, Philip Marlowe, finds himself entangled in a web of deception and moral ambiguity as he navigates the dark underbelly of Los Angeles.

Loyalty is explored through the character of Marlowe himself. He remains steadfast in his loyalty to his friend Terry Lennox, even when suspicions arise regarding Terry’s involvement in a murder. Marlowe’s loyalty is tested multiple times throughout the narrative, but his unwavering commitment to his friend drives him to uncover the truth, despite the consequences it may have for him personally.

Betrayal, on the other hand, permeates the story from various angles. Characters frequently deceive one another, often motivated by personal gain, power, or self-preservation. Marlowe encounters individuals who present themselves as reliable allies but later reveal their true nature, betraying his trust. These instances of betrayal create a sense of unpredictability and heighten the tension within the narrative.

Furthermore, the exploration of loyalty and betrayal extends beyond individual characters. The broader societal context portrayed in the novel also highlights these themes. The corrupt and morally compromised world of Los Angeles serves as a backdrop where loyalties can be bought, and betrayal is an everyday occurrence. This depiction underscores the pervasive and systemic nature of these themes, adding depth to the overall narrative.

7. Dialogue is a prominent feature in your writing. How do you create such distinct voices for your characters?

Dialogue is indeed a significant aspect of my writing, and I believe it plays a crucial role in bringing my characters to life. Creating distinct voices for each character is essential to make them memorable and realistic. Here are a few techniques I employ to achieve this:

Observation: I draw inspiration from real people and observe their unique ways of speaking. By paying attention to their mannerisms, speech patterns, and vocabulary choices, I can develop distinctive voices for my characters.

Characterization: Before I start writing, I spend considerable time developing my characters’ backstories and personalities. Understanding their motivations, desires, and flaws helps me give each character a distinct voice that aligns with their individual traits.

Diction and Vocabulary: Each character has a particular way of expressing themselves. Some may use formal language, while others speak more colloquially. By carefully selecting words and phrases that reflect their background and personality, I can create dialogue that feels authentic to each character.

8. “The Long Goodbye” has been described as a critique of the corrupt power dynamics in society. Can you elaborate on this interpretation?

“The Long Goodbye,” considered one of my most significant works, does indeed delve into the theme of corrupt power dynamics within society. This novel serves as a critique of the pervasive corruption that exists not only in the criminal underworld but also within the upper echelons of society itself.

In the story, I aim to portray the stark contrast between the glamorous facade of wealth and privilege and the underlying moral decay and manipulation that permeate the lives of the affluent. The characters are entangled in a web of deceit, greed, and exploitation, exposing the dark underbelly of Los Angeles during that era.

One example of corrupt power dynamics can be seen through the character of Terry Lennox, who is a symbol of the corrupting influence of money and social connections. His privileged background and manipulative actions throughout the narrative reflect how those with sufficient power and wealth often operate above the law, escaping accountability for their actions.

Furthermore, the character of Roger Wade, a famous author struggling with alcoholism, serves as a metaphor for the destructive nature of power and fame. Despite his success, he is trapped in a cycle of dependence on others. Through this portrayal, I aim to illustrate how the corrupt power dynamics prevalent in society can exploit even the talented and successful, leading to their downfall.

9. Alcoholism is a central theme in the book. How did you handle this topic, and what were you trying to convey through it?

Throughout the novel, I portrayed the character of Philip Marlowe, my iconic detective, as a heavy drinker who often uses alcohol as a coping mechanism for the bleakness of the world he inhabits.

By emphasizing Marlowe’s reliance on alcohol, I aimed to convey a sense of disillusionment and moral ambiguity that permeates the narrative. Alcohol serves as a metaphor for the larger themes of decay and corruption present in society. Marlowe’s struggle with alcoholism reflects the darker aspects of human nature, including vulnerability, self-destruction, and the inability to escape one’s past.

At the same time, I wanted to demonstrate the complexities of Marlowe’s character. Despite his dependence on alcohol, he remains an astute observer and possesses a strong sense of justice. Through this juxtaposition, I aimed to show the flaws and contradictions within individuals, highlighting that even flawed heroes can pursue truth and ultimately make morally right choices.

10. Female characters in your works often possess their own agency and complexity. How did you approach the portrayal of women in “The Long Goodbye”?

In my depiction of women, I strived to move beyond traditional stereotypes and present them as multidimensional individuals with their own desires, motivations, and flaws.

One key aspect of my approach was to avoid reducing female characters to mere plot devices or objects of desire. Instead, I sought to make them integral to the story, with their actions driving the narrative forward. For example, Eileen Wade was a complex character who played a pivotal role in shaping the events of the novel. She had her own agenda and exercised agency in pursuing her goals, making her an active participant rather than a passive observer.

Moreover, I aimed to challenge societal expectations by portraying women who defied conventional norms or faced their own struggles. Linda Loring, for instance, was a troubled woman trapped in an unhealthy relationship, providing a poignant exploration of vulnerability and the consequences of misplaced loyalties.

In “The Long Goodbye,” I wanted to convey that women are not monolithic but instead possess a range of personalities and motivations. Some characters were strong, independent, and self-reliant, while others exhibited vulnerability and co-dependence. By depicting this diversity, I aimed to reflect the complexities present in real-life women.

11. The novel has a non-linear plot structure. Why did you choose to tell the story in this way, and what effect were you hoping to achieve?

The decision to employ a non-linear plot structure in The Long Goodbye was driven by my desire to create a sense of disorientation and provide readers with a unique reading experience. By presenting events out of chronological order, I aimed to challenge traditional narrative conventions and engage readers in a way that mirrored the fragmented nature of the story’s themes and characters.

The effect I hoped to achieve was to immerse readers into the complex world of Philip Marlowe, the novel’s protagonist. Marlowe is a morally ambiguous character who navigates through a web of deceit, corruption, and personal turmoil. Utilizing a non-linear plot structure allowed me to mirror Marlowe’s own confusion and uncertainty, making readers experience his journey on a more visceral level.

Furthermore, the non-linear structure enabled me to explore multiple layers of storytelling and reveal information gradually, creating suspense and mystery throughout the narrative. It also allowed for thematic exploration, delving into issues such as identity, friendship, betrayal, and the blurred lines between good and evil.

12. Your writing style is known for its vivid descriptions and evocative language. How do you choose the right words to create atmosphere and mood?

First off, I rely on my observations of the world around me. Every little detail matters; it’s the small things that give life to a story. I pay close attention to people, their mannerisms, how they speak, and what they wear. I soak up the ambiance of different environments, whether it’s the smoky haze of a dimly lit bar or the gleaming chrome of a swanky office.

Next, I go deep into the emotions of my characters. I try to understand what they’re feeling, what drives them, and what haunts them. By putting myself in their shoes, I can infuse my words with the right emotional resonances, whether it’s the haunting melancholy of a broken heart or the prickling tension of imminent danger.

But the real magic lies in my choice of words. I aim for precision, selecting words that not only capture the essence of what I’m describing but also evoke a distinct emotion. I might use similes and metaphors to draw comparisons and create vivid imagery. I play with sentence structure and rhythm, using short, punchy sentences for action scenes or longer, flowery ones to build suspense.

Lastly, I make sure to trust my gut. Writing is as much an art as it is a craft, and sometimes it’s about instinctively knowing which word will hit the mark. I revise and refine, polishing my prose until it shines like a freshly minted nickel.

13. Philip Marlowe’s sense of justice is a recurring theme. How does this aspect of his character manifest in “The Long Goodbye”?

In “The Long Goodbye,” Marlowe encounters a world filled with corruption, deceit, and moral ambiguity. Despite the prevailing cynicism around him, he remains committed to his own code of ethics. Marlowe’s sense of justice compels him to act on behalf of the downtrodden and seek truth, even when it puts him at great personal risk.

One way Marlowe’s sense of justice manifests is through his loyalty to his friend Terry Lennox. When Lennox is accused of murder, Marlowe embarks on a quest to clear his name. Marlowe’s unwavering belief in Lennox’s innocence drives him to dig deeper, expose the truth, and confront those involved in the conspiracy. This showcases Marlowe’s determination to protect an innocent person and ensure justice is served.

Another example of Marlowe’s sense of justice can be seen in his relentless pursuit of the truth behind the suicide of Roger Wade, a renowned writer. Despite facing numerous obstacles and threats, Marlowe refuses to accept the surface-level explanations and dives into the darker underbelly of society to uncover the real motives behind Wade’s death. His commitment to bringing the truth to light demonstrates his desire for justice, regardless of the consequences or impact on those involved.

Furthermore, Marlowe’s sense of justice is also reflected in his treatment of women. He displays empathy and concern towards the female characters, often taking up their cause and protecting them from harm. Marlowe’s chivalrous attitude stems from his belief in treating all individuals fairly and standing up against exploitation and mistreatment.

14. The title of the book is intriguing. Could you explain the significance of “The Long Goodbye” and how it relates to the narrative?

Firstly, the phrase “The Long Goodbye” highlights the concept of an extended farewell, emphasizing the difficulty of parting ways and bidding adieu. This sentiment is reflected throughout the book as Marlowe navigates the treacherous landscape of 1950s Los Angeles, where his relationships with friends and acquaintances become increasingly strained and complicated. The novel explores the lengths Marlowe goes to protect those he cares about and the toll it takes on him.

Moreover, “The Long Goodbye” encapsulates the overarching theme of disillusionment that permeates the narrative. Marlowe finds himself disillusioned with the society he inhabits, recognizing the pervasive corruption and moral decay lurking beneath its glamorous facade. This realization leads him down a path of self-reflection and ultimately forces him to question his own principles and sense of justice.

Additionally, the title alludes to the idea of a constant farewell to innocence and idealism. As Marlowe uncovers the dark secrets and hidden motives of the individuals he encounters, he becomes increasingly jaded and cynical. The novel underscores the notion that bid farewells to naivety are often long and painful processes.

the long goodbye

15. Your novels have had a significant impact on the detective fiction genre. How do you think “The Long Goodbye” contributes to the evolution of this genre?

“The Long Goodbye” is a novel that holds great significance in the evolution of the detective fiction genre. In this work, I aimed to push the boundaries of traditional crime stories by delving deeper into the character of the private investigator, Philip Marlowe.

Firstly, “The Long Goodbye” breaks away from the typical formula of a linear and fast-paced plot commonly found in detective fiction. I sought to create a more complex narrative structure, weaving multiple storylines together. By doing so, I challenged readers to engage with a more intricate and layered mystery, focusing not only on the case at hand but also on the flawed nature of human beings.

Moreover, this novel explores darker themes and social commentary, reflecting the evolving society of post-World War II America. Through Marlowe’s interactions with various characters, I wanted to highlight the corrupting influence of wealth, power, and organized crime. By incorporating these elements, I aimed to deepen the emotional and psychological impact of the story, elevating it beyond a simple whodunit framework.

16. The book addresses social issues and political corruption. What motivated you to include these themes, and how do they fit within the context of the story?

The inclusion of social issues and political corruption in my book, The Long Goodbye, was motivated by a desire to reflect the reality of the world in which the story takes place. By weaving these themes into the narrative, I aimed to explore the dark underbelly of society, shedding light on the vices and flaws that exist within it.

The central character of the book, Philip Marlowe, is a private detective who often finds himself entangled in the webs of corrupt individuals and institutions. Through his perspective, I wanted to highlight the pervasive nature of political corruption and its impact on society as a whole. By incorporating these elements into the plot, I aimed to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the complex forces at play behind the glamorous façade of Los Angeles.

Moreover, the themes of social issues and political corruption in The Long Goodbye serve to emphasize the moral ambiguity present in the story. The characters Marlowe encounters navigate a morally gray world, where personal motivations and societal pressures often blur the lines between right and wrong. By delving into these themes, I sought to challenge conventional notions of justice and provoke readers to question the moral fabric of the society in which they live.

17. Are there any autobiographical elements or personal experiences that influenced your writing of “The Long Goodbye”?

While the novel is a work of fiction, it does reflect certain aspects of my own life.

Firstly, the character of Philip Marlowe, the hardboiled detective and protagonist of many of my novels, including “The Long Goodbye,” possesses qualities and traits that are reminiscent of myself. Marlowe’s cynical and world-weary perspective often stemmed from my own observations and experiences.

“The Long Goodbye” also draws inspiration from my personal struggles with alcoholism. In the novel, the character Terry Lennox battles alcohol addiction, which reflects my own battles and the impact it had on my life. The themes of self-destruction and redemption explored in the book were deeply influenced by my own journey with alcohol.

Furthermore, the setting of Los Angeles, particularly the corrupt and gritty underbelly of the city, is heavily inspired by my own time living there. Having worked as an oil executive and witnessed the rampant corruption and shady dealings during that era, I infused these personal experiences into the narrative, creating a dark and seedy version of the City of Angels.

While “The Long Goodbye” remains a fictional tale, it undoubtedly incorporates autobiographical elements and personal experiences that shaped both the characters and the atmosphere of the novel.

18. “The Long Goodbye” has been adapted into film and television. What are your thoughts on these adaptations, and how well do you think they captured the essence of your work?

The adaptations of “The Long Goodbye” into film and television have been an interesting experience for me. It is always a complex task to translate a novel into a different medium, and while I understand the necessity for certain changes and adjustments, I have mixed feelings about how well my work has been captured in these adaptations.

When it comes to film, I appreciate the effort put into bringing my characters and stories to life on the screen. Seeing Philip Marlowe portrayed by talented actors has been a pleasure, and witnessing the noir atmosphere translated visually has its own appeal. However, some adaptations have deviated significantly from the intricate narrative structure and character depth present in my original work. While I understand the need for brevity in film, it can sometimes result in the loss of crucial elements that define the essence of my writing.

As for television adaptations, they offer more room for exploring the intricacies of my novels. Television series can delve deeper into the complexities of the characters and allow for a more faithful adaptation. However, there’s always a risk of diverging from the central themes that I intended to convey, or compromising the unique atmosphere of the hardboiled detective genre.

19. What message or takeaway do you hope readers will gain from “The Long Goodbye”?

In “The Long Goodbye,” my intention was to explore the darker aspects of society and human nature while weaving a complex narrative. Through the character of Philip Marlowe, readers are exposed to a gritty world filled with corruption, betrayal, and disillusionment.

One message I hoped readers would take away from this novel is the idea that individuals are often trapped in a web of moral ambiguity. The story dives deep into the complexities of right and wrong, highlighting the blurred lines between justice and injustice. By immersing readers in a morally murky landscape, I aimed to provoke contemplation about the values and choices we make in our own lives.

Additionally, “The Long Goodbye” delves into themes of loyalty, friendship, and the search for personal identity. Marlowe’s quest to uncover the truth and his unwavering loyalty to his friend Terry Lennox showcase the importance of integrity and staying true to oneself, even in the face of adversity.

By engaging with these themes, I hoped to provide readers with a thought-provoking and immersive experience, leaving them with a greater understanding of the complexities of the human condition.

20. Finally, can you recommend more books like The Long Goodbye?

“Of Human Bondage” by William Somerset Maugham: The novel takes us on a journey through the life of Philip Carey, an orphaned boy who struggles to find his place in the world. Set in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it examines themes of love, art, religion, and the pursuit of happiness.

“The Alchemist” by Paulo Coelho: This book takes its readers on a transformative journey through the eyes of its protagonist, Santiago, as he embarks on a quest to discover the true meaning of life and his own personal legend.

“Oliver Twist” by Charles Dickens: This novel portrays the gripping story of a young orphan boy who faces unimaginable adversity in the harsh realities of Victorian England. Through its vivid descriptions and compelling characters, “Oliver Twist” explores themes of poverty, social injustice, and the struggle for identity.

1 thought on “Exploring Raymond Chandler’s Literary Legacy: An Interview behind “The Long Goodbye””

  1. Pingback: A Journey through Time: Interviewing Charles C. Mann on the Legacy of 1493 - Bookfoods

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top